In 2011, addiction was referred to as a brain disorder1, whereas in 2019, addiction is referred to as a medical disease of the brain2. Although many research studies have been conducted since 2011, the definition of addiction has remained consistent. Both studies acknowledge that addiction is not limited to drugs or alcohol, but can be any substance or action that a person is dependent on.

Since 2011, the communal interpretation and acceptance of addiction as a chronic brain disease and the likelihood of recovery has increased. At the same time, there is developing acknowledgment of the roles of prevention and harm reduction in the scope of addiction and rehabilitation.

1http://www.nbcnews.com/id/44147493/ns/health-addictions/t/addiction-now-defined-brain-disorder-not-behavior-issue/#.XelB1-hKjD4

2https://www.asam.org/resources/definition-of-addiction